, "intellectual faculty that adopts actions to ends," also "statement in an argument, statement of explanation or justification," from Anglo-French resoun , Old French raison "course; matter; subject; language, speech; thought, opinion," from Latin rationem (nominative ratio ) "reckoning, understanding, motive, cause," from ratus , past participle of reri "to reckon, think," from PIE root *re(i)- "to reason, count" (cf. Old English rædan "to advise; see read (v.)).
Meaning "sanity; degree of intelligence that distinguishes men from brutes" is recorded from late 13c. Sense of "grounds for action, motive, cause of an event" is from . Middle English sense of "meaning, signification" (early 14c.) is in the phrase rhyme or reason . Phrase it stands to reason is from 1630s. Age of Reason "the Enlightenment" is first recorded 1794, as the title of Tom Paine's book.
Standards in this strand: - - - - - -
Comprehension and Collaboration: -
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. -
Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. -
Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. -
Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas. -
Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented. -
Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation. -
Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas: -
Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. -
Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. -
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.)