In recent years, Brazil has improved its environmental legislation and several initiatives were put in place to combat climate change, which has led to significant emission reductions. The Amazon Region Protected Areas Program (ARPA) encompasses 60 million hectares of protected areas and the estimated impact of ARPA alone will prevent the emission of 430 million tons of carbon by 2030. Another example is the Marine Protected Areas Program – a pioneer initiative that is expected to triple marine protected areas along Brazil's coast.
In addition, other elements conspire to take away from the harvest for which we worked so hard to produce. Despite the best application of modern agricultural practices, an unavoidable portion of what is grown rots in the fields prior to harvest time, or in the world’s storage bins afterwards. Every year, depending upon geographic location and intensity of El Niño events, crops suffer from too little water and wither on the spot, or are lost to severe flooding, hailstorms, tornados, earthquakes, hurricanes, cyclones, fires, and other destructive events of nature. Many of these phenomena are at best difficult to predict, and at worst are impossible to react to in time to prevent the losses associated with them. In sub-Saharan Africa, locusts remain an ever-present threat (42), and can devastate vast areas of farmland in a matter of days. Even after a bumper crop is realized, problems associated with processing and storage lessen the actual tonnage that is available to the consumer. A large portion of the harvest, regardless of the kind of plant or grain, is despoiled or a portion consumed by a variety of opportunistic life forms (., fungi, bacteria, insects, rodents) after being stored. While it is conceded that at present the abundance of cash crops is more than sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of the world’s human population, delivering them to world markets is driven largely by economics, not biological need. Thus, the poorest people – some billion – are forced to live in a constant state of starvation (43), with many thousands of deaths per year attributable to this wholly preventable predicament (44). Locating vertical farms near these human “hot spots” would greatly alleviate this problem.
Human activity is not solely responsible for climate change. It can occur due to natural causes as well. Large volumes of sulphur dioxide, ash, water vapor and dust escape into the atmosphere when a volcano erupts. Volcanoes also produce aerosols which reflect solar energy back into space. This cools the atmosphere. However, although volcanoes produce CO2 and greenhouse gases it is minor when compared to what we humans emit into the atmosphere. Changes in the Earth’s orbit and changes to the ocean’s currents are also natural causes that cause climate change.