In a section called "Rhetorical Structure and Strategy", in the chapter "Syntax and Rhetorical Structure: Words in Order and Disorder", Annie Finch writes, "Every time you write a poem, and probably before you even begin, you make a myriad of even more fundamental choices about its rhetorical stance and structure. Many of these choices are unconscious, based on ideas of 'what a poem is' that you have absorbed long before. To make these choices conscious, at least once in a while, can be refreshing and even eye-opening." Finch then offers a list of questions to ask regarding a poem's rhetorical structure and strategy, the last of which asks, "And finally, what are the rhetorical turns taken in the poem? How does the poem shape itself so that, when one has finished reading, one feels the poem is over, that something has happened, that something has changed?" 
Anna Walsh at The HU
The Gremlin homepage Gráinne Tobin grew up in Armagh and lives in Newcastle, Co Down with her husband. She taught for many years, in further and adult education and in Shimna Integrated College. She is interested in keeping poetry open to its audience, including people without long years of schooling. Her books are Banjaxed and The Nervous Flyer’s Companion ( Summer Palace Press ) and a third collection is due soon from Arlen House. She was a founder-member of the Word of Mouth Poetry Collective , which met monthly for 25 years in the Linen Hall Library in Belfast, and she contributed to Word of Mouth ( Blackstaff Press) which was translated into Russian, and to the Russian-English parallel text anthology of members’ translations from five St Petersburg women poets, When the Neva Rushes Backwards ( Lagan Press ).
Some of her poems are available in online archives, the Arts Council of Northern Ireland’s Troubles Archive and the Poetry Ireland archive . Some have been exhibited in the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford, the Old Museum Arts Centre, Belfast and Derry’s Central Library. One was made into a sculpture and is on permanent display in Down Arts Centre, Downpatrick.
She has had poems in anthologies – The Stony Thursday Book, Aesthetica Creative Writing, Washing Windows, On the Grass When I Arrive, Something About Home – in magazines such as Abridged, Poetry Ireland, The Dickens, Mslexia, Irish Feminist Review, Boyne Berries, Skylight 47, Crannog, Banshee, Acumen, North West Words, Ulla’s Nib, Fortnight, the South Bank Magazine, and also online, in Four X Fou r and on a website for psychotherapists. She has won the Down Arts, Mourne Observer and Segora poetry prizes and has been listed in competitions.
All 5 course components will use the Leaving Certificate past papers as a basis to ensure that they are totally exam focused.
1) Journalistic Text (50 marks) – this will focus on Section A, question 1. b), specifically focusing on synonyms.
2) Opinion piece (50 marks) – this will incorporate several of the following topics:
Los problemas sociales de la sociedad contemporánea
La discriminación, la inmigración/la emigración y la pobreza
El acoso escolar
El trabajo/el ocio
El medio ambiente
La crisis económica
3) Dialogue Construction/Formal Letter (30 marks) – this will be used to highlight more complex grammatical structures such as the present and imperfect subjunctive. It will also touch on letter layout.
4) Diary Entry/Note (20 marks) – layout and sentence construction will be highlighted.
5) Aural (80 marks) – this will include practise of the listening component and an in depth revision of weather vocabulary.